Software requirements

Adobe Reader

Apart from the DNA and protein sequence data (which are zipped text files), most of the materials available from this Web site are provided as PDF files. To read the PDF documents you will need Adobe Reader or similar software. The Adobe Reader can be downloaded free-of-charge from


To analyse the sequence data you will need to download and install some software called Geneious. Installers for Windows 2000/XP/Vista or Mac OS X 10.4/10.5 are available from the Geneious web site: You will also need Java 5 or Java 6. Java 5 is included with the Geneious software for Windows operating systems; on a Macintosh you may need run Software Update to install the latest version of Java.

Installing Geneious


Run the installer and then follow the instructions on the screen.

Mac OS X

Double-click the Macintosh .dmg file then drag Geneious to your Applications folder or other desired location.

Basic or Pro?

The Basic version of Geneious is free-of-charge, and it is all that is required for these activities. There is also, however, a paid-for Pro version of the software, and when you install Geneious you will receive a 14-day free trial of the Pro version. After 14 days, the Pro features of the software will stop working, leaving you with the Basic version.

Other operating systems & further help

Versions of Geneious for Linux and Solaris operating systems, software updates and further information are available from the Geneious web site: